He was among the primordial gods who came into existence asexually; after his generation, deities were begotten through male-female unions. [62] On coinage issued by Sulla the dictator, Cupid bears the palm branch, the most common attribute of Victory. He made people fall in love by shooting an arrow into their heart. Alternative Title: Amor Cupid, ancient Roman god of love in all its varieties, the counterpart of the Greek god Eros and the equivalent of Amor in Latin poetry.

Nor hath love's mind of any judgement taste; Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. She wanders the earth looking for him, and finally submits to the service of Venus, who tortures her.

One interpretation of this allegory is that Neptune represents the soul's origin in the matter from which life was fashioned, with Cupid triumphing as the soul's desired destiny. During the English Renaissance, Christopher Marlowe wrote of "ten thousand Cupids"; in Ben Jonson's wedding masque Hymenaei, "a thousand several-coloured loves ... hop about the nuptial room". In classical mythology, Cupid (Latin Cupīdō [kʊˈpiːdoː], meaning "passionate desire") is the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection.

[55] An inscription from Cártama in Roman Spain records statues of Mars and Cupid among the public works of a wealthy female priest (sacerdos perpetua), and another list of benefactions by a procurator of Baetica includes statues of Venus and Cupid. [54] Roman temples often served a secondary purpose as art museums, and Cicero mentions a statue of "Cupid" (Eros) by Praxiteles that was consecrated at a sacrarium and received religious veneration jointly with Hercules.

His symbols are the arrow and torch, "because love wounds and inflames the heart." [37] A dolphin-riding Cupid may attend scenes depicting the wedding of Neptune and Amphitrite or the Triumph of Neptune, also known as a marine thiasos.

He is a main character only in the tale of Cupid and Psyche, when wounded by his own weapons, he experiences the ordeal of love.

[11] Cicero, however, says that there were three Cupids, as well as three Venuses: the first Cupid was the son of Mercury and Diana, the second of Mercury and the second Venus, and the third of Mars and the third Venus. Other Comparisons: What's the difference? In Latin he is called Amor (love) or Cupid (desire). Jones-Davies and Ton Hoenselaars, introduction to, Jean Sorabella, "A Roman Sarcophagus and Its Patron,", Dominic Perring, "'Gnosticism' in Fourth-Century Britain: The Frampton Mosaics Reconsidered,", Anthony King, "Mammals: Evidence from Wall Paintings, Sculpture, Mosaics, Faunal Remains, and Ancient Literary Sources," in.

He is also known in Latin as Amor ("Love").

As nouns the difference between amor and cupid is that amor is love while cupid is a putto carrying a bow and arrow, representing cupid or love. In myths, Cupid is a minor character who serves mostly to set the plot in motion.

Roman historians criticize cupido gloriae, "desire for glory," and cupido imperii, "desire for ruling power".

Although Eros is generally portrayed as a slender winged youth in Classical Greek art, during the Hellenistic period, he was increasingly portrayed as a chubby boy. [58] A brother of this child became the emperor Claudius, whose mother Antonia appears in a surviving portrait-sculpture as Venus, with Cupid on her shoulder. [42] In the 1st century AD, Pliny had described two marble versions of a Cupid (Eros), one at Thespiae and a nude at Parium, where it was the stained object of erotic fascination. In one tale, her machinations backfired when she used Cupid in revenge on the mortal Psyche, only to have Cupid fall in love and succeed in making Psyche his immortal wife. Startled by his beauty, she drips hot oil from the lamp and wakes him. A madrigal by his literary rival Gaspare Murtola exhorted artists to paint the theme.

[28] In a version by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, a writer of the German Enlightenment, the incident prompts Cupid to turn himself into a bee: Through this sting was Amor made wiser.The untiring deceiverconcocted another battle-plan:he lurked beneath the carnations and rosesand when a maiden came to pick them,he flew out as a bee and stung her.

This last Cupid was the equivalent of Anteros, "Counter-Love," one of the Erotes, the gods who embody aspects of love.


In the tale of Cupid the honey thief, the child-god is stung by bees when he steals honey from their hive.

[48], Earlier in his career, Caravaggio had challenged contemporary sensibilities with his "sexually provocative and anti-intellectual" Victorious Love, also known as Love Conquers All (Amor Vincit Omnia), in which a brazenly naked Cupid tramples on emblems of culture and erudition representing music, architecture, warfare, and scholarship.

Our website uses cookies.

Because in choice he is so oft beguiled. The goddess then sends Psyche on a series of quests. 824

Putti are also frequently depicted together, and in such cases they are not always involved with love. [2], The name Cupīdō ('passionate desire') is a derivative of Latin cupiō, cupiere ('to desire'), stemming from Proto-Italic *kupi, *kupei ('to desire'), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kup(e)i ('to tremble, desire'). He is also shown wearing a helmet and carrying a buckler, perhaps in reference to Virgil's Omnia vincit amor or as political satire on wars for love, or love as war. After the Battle of Actium, when Antony and Cleopatra were defeated, Cupid transferring the weapons of Mars to his mother Venus became a motif of Augustan imagery.

[27] The German poet and classicist Karl Philipp Conz (1762–1827) framed the tale as Schadenfreude ("taking pleasure in someone else's pain") in a poem by the same title.

Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Lucas Cranach the Elder – Venus with Cupid Stealing Honey, Venus and Amor by Frans Floris, Hallwyl Museum, Venus, Mars and Cupido by Joachim Wtewael, around 1610, Allegory with Venus, Mars, Cupid and Time (ca. The story of Cupid and Psyche appears in Greek art as early as the 4th century BC, but the most extended literary source of the tale is the Latin novel Metamorphoses, also known as The Golden Ass, by Apuleius (2nd century AD). The influential Renaissance mythographer Natale Conti began his chapter on Cupid/Eros by declaring that the Greeks themselves were unsure about his parentage: Heaven and Earth,[6] Ares and Aphrodite,[7] Night and Ether,[8] or Strife and Zephyr.

In the Renaissance, a renewed interest in classical philosophy endowed him with complex allegorical meanings.

And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. [46], In the poetry of Giambattista Marino (d. 1625), the image of Cupid or Amore sleeping represents the indolence of Love in the lap of Idleness. She gives safe harbor to Aeneas and his band of refugees from Troy, only to be abandoned by him as he fulfills his destiny to found Rome. [72] Often presented as an allegory of love overcoming death, the story was a frequent source of imagery for Roman sarcophagi and other extant art of antiquity. As a winged figure, Cupido shared some characteristics with the goddess Victoria. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [67] An association of sex and violence is found in the erotic fascination for gladiators, who often had sexualized names such as Cupido. In the 15th century, the iconography of Cupid starts to become indistinguishable from the putto. Cupid, ancient Roman god of love in all its varieties, the counterpart of the Greek god Eros and the equivalent of Amor in Latin poetry. [56], Cupid became more common in Roman art from the time of Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Versnel, "A Parody on Hymns in Martial V.24 and Some Trinitarian Problems,", Rebecca Armstrong, "Retiring Apollo: Ovid on the Politics and Poetics of Self-Sufficiency,", "Marriage Can Be Monstrous, or Wondrous: The Origins of "Beauty and the Beast, "Allyn and Bacon Anthology of Traditional Literature: Cupid and Psyche", Warburg Institute Iconographic Database (ca 2,400 images of Cupid), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cupid&oldid=982356154, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Before the existence of gender dichotomy, Eros functioned by causing entities to separate from themselves that which they already contained. [43], Michelangelo's work was important in establishing the reputation of the young artist, who was only twenty at the time. [51], The theme was also expressed as the triumph of Cupid, as in the Triumphs of Petrarch.